1587: Mary, Queen of Scots 1905: Samuel McCue, mayor of Charlottesville, Virginia

1963: Abd al-Karim Qasim, Iraqi Prime Minister

February 9th, 2008 Headsman

On this date in 1963, putschists captured Iraqi Prime Minister Abd al-Karim Qasim,* subjected to him to a snap tribunal, and had him immediately shot.

Qasim‘s five-year run as Iraq’s Prime Minister marks that country’s transition from the British-installed Hashemite monarchy to the secular dictatorship that persisted until America’s 2002 2003 invasion.

It was the heyday of postcolonialism, of the Cold War, of pan-Arab strivings — a political topography of the Middle East that seems unrecognizably different from the distance of a half-century’s evolution.

And yet … not so alien after all. For superpower intervention and oil politics were already defining and demarcating the oil-rich nation’s choices.

Qasim had come to power in a coup of his own, a recognizable exemplar of the young Turks genre: in 1958, a cadre of energetic young officers virtually without resistance disposed of the unwelcome royal family and seized the helm of the state.

Contention among interest blocs within Iraq and without during the Qasim years, leading the coup’s author to this day’s fate, is too complex** for a full examination in this space. Of greatest moment was the nationalist officer’s alliance with the robust Iraqi Communist Party against the youthful Ba’ath party, a marriage of convenience not supported by all his cohorts.

Qasim himself was not a communist, but the arrangement of players that made this partnership expedient tended to drive Iraq out of the American orbit — out, for instance, of the anti-Soviet Baghdad Pact — and towards that of the Soviet Union.

Qasim partly nationalized the oil industry — that job would be completed by a successor — and hosted the meetings where OPEC was born. He threatened to annex Kuwait.

Washington looked askance at these developments, and it was well before 1963 that it took steps to abort them. Early in 1959, Qasim survived a coup attempt. Later that same year, a CIA asset botched an assassination attempt.

The 22-year-old would-be assassin escaped the country and laid up in American safehouses abroad, but young Saddam Hussein would have a part to play yet in his country’s future — and he would return to play it because on this date, the Agency got its man.

An excerpt from a U.S. State Department memorandum of a meeting with oil executives the week after Qasim’s fall. From one of several archival documents collected here. (Executed Today has also mirrored the site’s cable on Qasim’s execution page 1 | page 2).

* Also rendered Qassim or Kassem.

** A DailyKos diarist has very readable orientations to Qasim’s Iraq in History of Iraq: Oil, Commies, and Ba’ath and History of Iraq: 1947 – 1963.

Also on this date

Entry Filed under: 20th Century,Heads of State,Iraq,Politicians,Power,Shot,Soldiers,Summary Executions,Treason

6 Responses to “1963: Abd al-Karim Qasim, Iraqi Prime Minister”

  1. 1
    Heribert Schindler Says:

    Errrmmm …. didn’t the “invasion” start on March 20 2003 ?

  2. 2
    Headsman Says:

    And we just passed the fifth anniversary of Colin Powell U.N. Day.

    Thanks. What’s in a date, after all?

  3. 3
    Heribert Schindler Says:

    What’s in a date, after all ? Well, a lot of trouble … particularly when you are a married man and forget the exact date of your wedding day anniversary.

    And showing up one year too early for an invasion is NOTHING compared to a botched up wedding day anniversary, particularly when being married to Mrs Schindler.

    Compared to this, starring in an article in your wonderful blog would be nothing but a piece of cake.

  4. 4
    ExecutedToday.com » 1963: 21 Iraqi Communists Says:

    [...] Ba’ath were newly in the saddle after overthrowing Qasim earlier that year, and would be ousted again a few months hence before their definitive seizure of [...]

  5. 5
    Thoughts on America's International Impression and Vice Versa - Page 14 - Typology Central Says:

    [...] their oil industry – we no longer supported them. This is the first random link I pulled on Qasim ExecutedToday.com This history is well known to EVERYONE in the middle east. Which is why they don’t see us a [...]

  6. 6
    ExecutedToday.com » 1990: Farzad Bazoft, journalist Says:

    [...] after Bazoft’s hanging, when Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait and thereby transmogrified from a source of moderation in the region into the new Hitler, Bazoft’s execution naturally went onto the bill of [...]

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