1 comment October 3rd, 2008 Headsman
On this date in 1795, the slave whose rebellion had shaken the Dutch Caribbean colony of Curaçao was publicly tortured to death with his chief confederates.
Inspired by the Haitian Revolution — and reasoning that, since France occupied the Netherlands, that whole Declaration of the Rights of Man thing ought to be trickling down to Dutch colonies — the rebels freed slaves plantation to plantation and quickly swelled near 1,000.
Of course, Jean-Jacques Rousseau aside, the slaves were also irate that they were damn slaves.
Although the outside forces of international geopolitics played a role in inspiring the 1795 revolt, slaves could find sufficient justification for insurrection in the domestic policies that Dutch planters employed to keep their slaves laboring in Curacao. The planters maintained a harsh regime in which many privileges that had traditionally been bestowed upon slaves had been removed in order to heighten productivity and increase plantation profitability. By 1795, most slaves were being forced to work on Sundays, which had generally been a day of rest in the past, and many planters hired their slaves out to maximize profits by exploiting their labor. It had also become customary for all of the slaves on a plantation to be punished in response to the offense that an individual slave among them had committed. (Source)
A priest was sent as envoy from the worried white community to the rebel encampment, with an offer of amnesty for submission.
Tula (sometimes surnamed as Tula Rigaud) and fellow leaders Bastiaan Karpata (or Carpata), Pedro Wakao (or Wacao) and Louis Mercier received him politely, hosted him overnight, and told him to get lost. This is Tula:
Father, do not all the persons spring from Adam and Eve? Was I wrong in liberating twenty-two of my brothers who were unjustly imprisoned? Father, French liberty was a disaster for us. Each time one of us is punished, we are told: “Are you also looking for your freedom?” One day I was arrested, and I begged mercy for a poor slave; when I was liberated, my mouth was bleeding. I fell on my knees and I cried to God: “O Divine Majesty, O Most Pure Spirit, is it Your will that we are ill-treated? Father, they take better care of an animal.”
And subhuman was the torture Tula, Karpata and Wakao* bore for their insistence on freedom when a fellow slave finally — inevitably? — betrayed them.
At a spot now commemorated by a beachfront monument, the three had their bones systematically shattered with an iron rod, their heads lopped off, and their bodies tossed into the sea. (Despite the metadata on this post, it wasn’t precisely “breaking on the wheel” — but the bone-shattering was pretty much the same idea.)
Curacao remains today a Dutch possession; slavery was abolished there in 1863. August 17, the dawn of these Dutch slaves’ inspiring and fatal revolt for freedom, is now honored on the island — and off it.
* It’s unclear to me whether Mercier, who was captured earlier, was also executed with the others, or whether Mercier’s sentence had already been carried out by this time.
On this day..
- 1853: Three for the McIvor Gold Escort attack - 2016
- 1750: James Maclaine - 2015
- 1937: Alexander Chayanov, economist of the peasantry - 2014
- 1904: Herero prisoners, at the command of Lothar von Trotha - 2013
- 1945: Henry William Hagert - 2012
- 1873: Kintpuash, aka Captain Jack - 2011
- 2008: A son, all in the family - 2010
- 1283: Dafydd ap Gruffydd, Prince of Wales - 2009
Entry Filed under: 18th Century,Beheaded,Broken on the Wheel,Capital Punishment,Cycle of Violence,Death Penalty,Execution,Famous,France,Gruesome Methods,Guerrillas,History,Martyrs,Netherlands,Netherlands Antilles,Occupation and Colonialism,Popular Culture,Public Executions,Revolutionaries,Slaves,Soldiers
Tags: 1795, august 17, bastiaan karpata, curacao, declaration of the rights of man, French Revolution, holiday, landhuis knip, louis mercier, october 3, pedro wakao, slave revolt, slave trade, slavery, tula, tula rigaud