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1839: An opium merchant

February 26th, 2009 Headsman

On this date in 1839, the Chinese government provocatively beheaded an opium merchant before the European consulates in Canton.

Opium exports from India into China were a lucrative trade for the British Empire* — for those watching the macroeconomic books, it balanced Britain’s costly importation of Chinese tea — but the consequences for China were wealth hemorrhaging overseas and a growing population of addicts.

Qing decrees against the opium trade dated to decades earlier, but the English had simply smuggled the stuff in. Finally, in the late 1830’s, China began to move to enforce its prohibition.

The trading port of Canton — the English name for Guangzhou — under the administration of upright Confucian governor Lin Zexu (alternately transliterated Lin Tse-hsu) would become the tinder box for open war, by which Britain ultimately compelled China by force of arms to accept its unwanted product.

This day’s execution was one small escalation in that conflict.

Lin Zexu supervises the destruction of opium.

Late in 1838, Chinese police initiated drug busts and expelled at least one opium-trading British merchant. The beheading this date was of a Chinese dealer, but unmistakably directed at westerners given its placement before the foreign missions. The consular officials pulled down their flags in protest of the affront.**

But greater provocations were to follow anon, and by year’s end open hostilities were afoot.

The humiliating British victory that ensued forced China to accept Her Majesty’s drug-running … and helped seed domestic agitation that would ultimately undermine China’s decrepit Imperial rule.

* The United States also trafficked opium — primarily lower-quality opium imported from Smyrna, Turkey — into China during this time, on a much smaller scale than Britain. (Source)

** This period would also mark Canton/Guangzhou’s eclipse as a trading port. Britain seized Hong Kong during the Opium Wars and relocated its foreign offices. Most European powers followed suit, making that city the far eastern entrepôt of choice.

Also on this date

Entry Filed under: 19th Century,20th Century,Beheaded,Capital Punishment,China,Common Criminals,Crime,Death Penalty,Drugs,Execution,Hanged,History,Known But To God,Murder,Occupation and Colonialism,Power,Public Executions,Treason

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7 Responses to “1839: An opium merchant”

  1. 1
    ExecutedToday.com » 1905: Fou Tchou-Li, by a thousand cuts Says:

    [...] the British; the prisoner was apparently administered opium to numb the pain, the very product Britain had gone to war to force China to [...]

  2. 2
    ExecutedToday.com » 1900: En Hai, the murderer of von Ketteler Says:

    [...] commercial penetration — and domination — was generating domestic turmoil in China. As liberal reforms foundered in the late [...]

  3. 3
    ExecutedToday.com » 1898: The Six Gentlemen of the Hundred Days’ Reform Says:

    [...] modernization programme backed by forward-thinking officials with a mind to correct China’s supine position vis-a-vis the West. “Reform has never come about in any country without the flow of blood. [...]

  4. 4
    ExecutedToday.com » 1864: Hong Tianguifu, in the Taiping Rebellion Says:

    [...] defeat in the First Opium War in the 1840’s set the stage for Hong Xiuquan’s movement, and not only geopolitically: [...]

  5. 5
    ExecutedToday.com » 1911: Several revolutionaries on Double Ten Day Says:

    [...] such a surprise: China’s last dynasty had foundered in the face of the 19th century challenges of European colonialism; driven by multitudinous grievances, popular revolts and reform movements [...]

  6. 6
    ExecutedToday.com » 1872: Du Wenxiu, Panthay rebellion leader Says:

    [...] residents, made the decision to hand himself over to the Qing general. Swallowing a fatal dose of opium as his palanquin carried him to the Qing encampment, Du was already dead by the time that he was [...]

  7. 7
    ExecutedToday.com » 1856: Auguste Chapdelaine, saintly casus belli Says:

    [...] China, extracting a couple million silver taels in damages, and (of course) assuring their right to traffic opium into [...]

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