1705: Captain Thomas Green and two of his crew on the Worcester

On this date in 1705, another century’s supposed terrorist was hanged on Leith Sands with two of his “pirate” crew by a Scottish court “drunk with patriotic prejudice.”*

This execution took place in the feverish run-up to England and Scotland’s Acts of Union welding the neighboring realms into Great Britain in 1707.

Arising as it did from the same causes that animated that national marriage of convenience, Green’s execution also endangered it: Daniel Defoe, who was at this time a pro-Unionist mole (and prolific pamphleteer) for English pol Robert Harley, described this hanging as one of the six crises that had to be overcome en route to the Union.

A Man, A Plan, A Calamity


That’s where it all started, for Green and Union alike.

Mired in economic backwardness as neighboring European states carved up the world, Scotland made a bold, doomed bid for a chit in the empire game: the Darien scheme. One part visionary and (at least) two parts daft, this venture attempted to establish a Scottish colony on the Isthmus of Panama (aka the Isthmus of Darien) with a view to porting freight across the narrow strip of land separating Atlantic and Pacific, and dominating the dramatically more efficient east-west trade route that would result.

The intended Scottish colony in Panama; map from this University of Glasgow exhibit.

Students of the Panama Canal project will be aware that this malarial tropic would not be described as especially hospitable; to the natural disadvantages of the climate were added the political interpositions of England herself, whose hostility to the advent of her Caledonian neighbor as a New World rival was expressed in legislation choking the Darien adventure of foreign aid.

(Also a problem: Spain. The colony was abandoned at last under Spanish siege.)

So Scotland went it intrepidly, injudiciously alone in this last bid for real independent muscle in Europe. The hyperbole of the Isthmus’s publicists eventually sucked in 20 percent or more of the capital circulating in Scotland. And when Darien-dot-com went bust by 1700 at the cost of a couple thousand lives, it cratered the Scottish economy too. That set the stage for Edinburgh’s partnership in a different scheme: Great Britain.

Green with Envy

In the years following the Darien catastrophe, the Scottish corporation chartered to undertake it was still throwing stuff against the wall in the world trade game, trying to get something to stick to at least take the edge off the losses.

This company (theoretically a potential rival of England’s own East India Company) had suffered the further national indignity of having one of its ships, the Annandale, seized in the Thames for infringing the East India Company’s royal monopoly. Its appeals for redress falling on deaf ears, the Darien company apparently induced Scottish authorities to undertake the retaliatory seizure of an English merchant ship, the Worcester, that had the ill luck to weather a storm at the Firth of Forth.

Rumor soon connected this ship to another vanished Darien company vessel overdue from its return trip from the East Indies … and, as it quickly became understood by all right-thinking Scots, overtaken in the Indian Ocean by this same Worcester and its crew butchered.

Captain Thomas Green and his English crew were hailed before an Admiralty court** on piracy charges on this extremely fantastical connection in a virtual mob atmosphere.

It never was clearly established that an act of piracy had been committed as a distinct fact, but by putting certain circumstances together it was inferred that Green was guilty of piracy. The very shape in which the accusation is set forth, shows that the accusers could not point to the specific act of piracy which had been committed …

[There] was no specification as to the vessel taken, which might enable the accused to prove that it had not been taken; no names of parties murdered, who might be shown still to be alive; no ownership of cargo, which might admit of proof that the owner’s goods had arrived safe. As Green himself is made justly to say in the document published as his dying speech, “We are condemned as pirates and murderers on a coast far distant from this place — is there any of you who wants either a friend whom we have murdered, or whose goods we have taken?”

Worcester Sauce

The Worcester‘s Malabari cook provided a highly dubious charge — dubious, for he was not yet among the crew when it last called at the location he claimed the crime took place — of Green and crew hatchet-murdering approximately ten English-speaking mariners on an unnamed vessel off the Indian coast.

Upon this evidence, 14 or more members (the ready sources are a little loose on the total number) of the Worcester crew were condemned for piracy, and initially slated for three batches of hangings. Queen Anne‘s personal intervention managed a stay,

The Scottish Privy Council unto the very last hours debated what to do with the diplomatic appeals, with evidence forwarded from London to the effect that the crew these Worcester men had supposedly slaughtered were alive, their vessel having been hijacked in another place, by another man.

But a surging Scottish mob aggrieved by the preceding years’ misadventures and the impending shotgun marriage to Westminster rather than anything Green himself had really done was already engorged on the blood of the supposed English corsairs. Most of the Council thought better than to deny them their sacrifice.†

The Streets fill’d with Incredible Numbers of Men, Women and Children, calling for Justice upon those ENGLISH Murtherers. The Lord Chancellor Seafield‘s Coach happening to pass by, they stop’d it, broket he Sashes, haul’d him out, and oblig’d him to promise Execution should speedily be done before he could get from ’em … According to the Chancellors promise, soon after, on the same Day, being Wednesday, Captain Green, Madder [the mate], and Sympson [the gunner] were brought out, and convey’d to Execution, which was at Leith Road upon the Sands, and all the way was Huzza’d in Triumph as it were, and insulted with the sharpest and most bitter Invectives. Being come to the place of Execution, Good God! what a moving sight was it to see those Men stand upon the very Varge of Life, just launching in to Eternity, and at the same time see the whole Multitudet ransported with Joy!”

-From an anonymous Letter From Scotland To a Friend in London, quoted by James Kelly, “The Worcester Affair,” The Review of English Studies, Feb. 2000

In the event, these three were the only ones actually hanged; passions cooled enough for the other “pirates” to be quietly released.

But the wider, national passions unleashed by this date’s executions would long provide fodder for intemperate patriotic recrimination, and specifically anti-Unionist propaganda — on both sides of the border.

Competing propagandistic broadsides framed and re-framed the events, as the affair of unscrupulous English buccaneers or perfidious highland barbarians. (Defoe, maneuvering for Union, wrote to chill such bad-for-business hostility: “Nothing could be more horrid, than that the Scots should Execute these Men on a meer Pique at the English Nation. Nothing can be more like it, than to conclude rashly, that it is so, and improve it on purpose to Exasperate our People against the Scots.” (Kelly))

And that, of course, is precisely the viewpoint that prevailed.

While the hemp neckties issued to Green et al this date threatened to (ahem) scotch the Union project, that very danger might have ultimately hastened its completion — as elites recognized, in Defoe’s words, that Union represented “the only way to preserve the publick Tranquillity, and prevent the certain Mischiefs that threatened the whole Body,” (Kelly, again) and rammed it through with dispatch.‡

* English historian G.M. Trevelyan.

** A lengthy account of the trial can be found in this Google books freebie

† In their very scanty defense, the Scottish magistrates had reason to fear Scottish citizens.

‡ The ebb and flow of national resentment continued long after the Acts of Union, of course; continuing Scottish support for the restoration of the Stuart monarchy was one expression of Scottish nationalism and anti-Union sentiment.

On this day..

18 thoughts on “1705: Captain Thomas Green and two of his crew on the Worcester

  1. Hi my name is ERIN GREEN . CAPTAIN THOMAS GREEN is my 7th great grand father . I would love to read what u have of him and his crew . Pictures, anything . I think what happened to him was terrible. And I would love to know more about him . Please contact me back thank u have a great day

  2. This was all in retaliation by the Scots for the ship Annandale that had been taken earlier by the British in the River Thames. I would love to know more about the ship, The Annandale which was clearly named after the Marquis of Annandale, William Johnstone, who during this period was one of the most powerful men in Scotland.

      • Have you managed to source Bowrey’s original papers or are you working from indirect sources?

        • Thank you, I have located, and have images of, all of Bowrey’s papers. I have also read just about everything written about the case of the Worcester – the indirect source. My considered opinion is that Green and his crew were not guilty of piracy and that the “evidence” against them was, in the main, base on a misinterpreted understanding of the facts.

          • Bowrey is a fascinating character, such energy. Good luck with the bio.
            As to the Worcester affair, I have known of it via Temple’s book for many years and am just about to start writing a little book on it, to keep intellectually busy in old age, when it is too cold or wet or dark to garden.

            It is surprising that Duncan McKendrick mentions that Green pirated the Rising Sun; there is no evidence for this that I have found thus far.

          • Tim

            The Rising Sun reference confused me as well. It was the name of another of Bowrey’s ventures. That Rising Sun (commander by Thomas Whybergh) departed London in December 1703 after being damaged in Great Storm. There was a near mutiny of her crew at Flushing where she went for repairs and was delayed by more bad weather. However, she, eventually, arrived home safely. Of course, names were reused and there would have been other Rising Suns..

            Good luck with your own book. Temple’s book I based on Bowrey’s papers plus some additional research but beware he was not unbiased as far as Bowrey was concerned. There are also plenty of other good sources. I could let you have a bibliography but this is not really a suitable medium. If you email me at ctb (in full) at gmail, I can send it to you.


          • Hello Sue, many thanks for the biblio offer which I will certainly follow up.
            A thought; what flag would/should the Speedy Return have been flying if she had ever been on the Malabar coast, that of England, that of Scotland or that of the Darien Company? My feeling is not the first but yet it seems to have been that flag which was identified in the evidence, or have I misunderstood something? If so, it might indicate another irregularity in the evidence, perhaps.

          • Tim

            By the time the Speedy Return reached India she was in the hands of pirates lead by John Bowen. At this stage, she was together with Bowrey’s Prosperous and bothwere shortly to be burned at Rajapur. I do not know what flag they flew, possibly none. However, all ships at the time, merchant or national navies, would often fly flags of convenience. There are records of Bowrey’s Mary Galley flying French flags at Fort St George and being ordered to stop. A ship may fly an incorrect flag to deceive, either for safety in the presence of enemy shipping or to maliciously trick another ship.
            Since my last post, I believe I have found the source of the post bout Drummond’s ship being the Rising Sun. See pages 326-328 of Temple’s book (first edition).

  3. Yesterday I visited the Shrine of Saint Therese in Darien, IL for a cnsoeosifn with Father Bernard, a German Carmelite Monk who has lived in the States for many years. He is now assigned to the Shrine, and it is next door to the Carmelite Provincial House.After the Sacrament of Confession, Father gave me a tour of the cell in which Saint Terese lived and died. It’s not a replica, but the real cell. It includes her bed and all the furniture therein. Actual window that overlooked a courtyard. It was the very same window that she looked out and saw a huge Cricifix. Her writing desk, and her writings were there as well. Then there is actual door and door frame, and tiles that were all from her room including the door knob.Finally, her favourite painting of Jesus standing outside the door of our hearts and knocking. There is no knob to open the door from the outside. It is up to us to open the door from the inside, and let Jesus enter into our lives.Invite Our Lord to enter into your lives, and let Him be Lord over your life.

  4. Enjoyed your article. I am looking for any artwork of the ship Annandale, seized in the Thames or at least a description of what kind of ship it was. Thanks, Carl

      • Duncan, Thank you for your reply and information. However, I did not see anything on the ship Annandale from Our Country, a history of Scotland by Rev James Mackenzie on page 268 or any other. Only 3 pages in the book mentioned Annandale but this was not in reference to the Ship? Any further info. would be greatly appreciated. CLJ

  5. The Scottish ship attacked by the Worcester of London was the Rising Sun of Leith. Look at the South Leith Old Parish Register for April 1705 for full details.

    • The Rising Sun was pirated in Mauritius where her captain stayed. The ship may later have been taken to India by the pirates where she was burnt as no longer necessary
      There was and is no proof of Captain Green’s guilt.

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