On this date in 1823, Rafael Riego was hanged in Madrid.
On the first day of the 1820s, he led an army mutiny that forced the king to restore that constitution.
Feckless Ferdinand went along with the new sheriff, and the result was a three-year interregnum of constitutional government — the Trienio Liberal.
But the Bourbon king was only too pleased to solicit the aid of Europe’s counterrevolutionary monarchs.
In 1823, a French expedition — the “hundred thousand sons of St. Louis — invaded Spain at Ferdinand’s invitation and swiftly crushed Riego’s liberals. Then Ferdinand crushed Riego himself.
Induced like Cranmer to sully his reputation by recanting in the vain hope of a pardon (and by starvation and other coercions), Riego was instead stripped of military honors, given a summary trial, and ignominiously drug to the gallows in a basket.
Text of a propaganda leaflet that circulated in England following Riego’s execution. (Source)
And we’re not just talking 19th century. There’s a Himno de Riego, which was also the anthem of the 1930s Spanish Republic that Franco laid low.