June 28th, 2009 Headsman
On June 28, 1578, five Catholic monks were burnt to death in Ghent for homosexuality.
At our scene in the Spanish-controlled Low Countries, the revolt that would become known as the Eighty Years’ War and secure Dutch independence still had about 70 of those years to run.
Half civil war, half proto-nationalist revolution, this conflict overlaid disputes over both political and religious authority, complicated by a catastrophic Spanish bankruptcy.
Of this compelling history much beyond our scope, the piece of most moment for our unfortunate monks was a grudging agreement to chill out the sectional suppression as part of a temporary truce between the warring sides. Said “slackening of persecution inspired Reformed public worship and attempts to topple the Catholic stewpot.” (Source)
Late in 1577, a political coup in the commercial powerhouse of Ghent did just that, part of a mini-Renaissance of Calvinist city-republics that Spanish arms would truncate in the 1580’s. But here in the 1570’s, the newly elevated slate of Calvinists implemented a “Reform” agenda that included aggressive moves against Catholic authority.
On 18-22 May , the Reformed launched an attack on the four mendicant monasteries. Their churches were purified and made ready for Reformed worship. On 1 June the first public preaching was organized in the Dominican and Carmelite churches. (Source, a pdf)
Rumors of homosexuality in the religious orders swept the overheated city (assuming they were not put about intentionally), and this day opened a summer’s terror that saw 14 monks burned (pdf) for the love that dare not speak its name.
Kenneth Borris translates the inscription on the Franz Hogenberg image linked above thus:
“five monks are being burned in Flanders, in the city of Ghent. Four are Franciscans (Minnenbruder*) and the fifth Augustinian. Also three have been quickly flogged with switches on the market square as they deserve, because of their outrageous sexual offenses (unzuchtt) that greatly offended the authorities. That is why the four mendicant orders have now been driven out of Ghent.”
William the Silent, made of more statesmanlike stuff than these zealots, would actually enter Ghent himself the next year to disarm the ruling clique, realizing that firebrands were driving Catholic cities back into Spanish arms.
But he could not contain the schism. Spain ultimately kept the Catholic-leaning territories that today comprise Luxembourg and Belgium (including Ghent), while the Protestant Netherlands fought onward to independence.
* “Minnenbroder,” Borris explains, “may be a satiric pun on the word minne (which had come to mean debauchery), suggesting ‘brothers in lust’ as opposed to brotherly love. Hogenberg connects sodomy with ‘godlessness,’ as was common.”
On this day..
- 1680: The wife of Abdullah Celebi, and her Jewish lover - 2016
- 1816: Five Ely and Littleport rioters - 2015
- 1927: Jindrich Bazant, killer rake - 2014
- 1776: Thomas Hickey, plotting against George Washington - 2013
- 1844: Gabriel de la Concepcion Valdes, "Placido" - 2012
- 1899: Ologbosere, of the Benin Empire - 2011
- 1890: Major Panitza, by Stefan Stambolov - 2010
- 1905: Henri Languille, a man of science - 2008
Entry Filed under: 16th Century,Belgium,Burned,Capital Punishment,Death Penalty,Disfavored Minorities,Execution,God,History,Homosexuals,Mass Executions,Netherlands,Occupation and Colonialism,Power,Public Executions,Religious Figures,Sex,Spain
Tags: 1570s, 1578, augustinians, calvinism, catholicism, dutch revolt, eighty years' war, flanders, franciscans, franz hogenberg, ghent, june 28, pacification of ghent, Protestant Reformation, religion, sodomy, union of arras, william i of orange, william the silent